BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS BIS REVIEW NO. 113: CENTRAL BANKS

September 24, 2009 on 3:16 pm | In Economics, Financial, Globalization, Research | No Comments

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BIS Review

Bank for International Settlements

BIS Review No 113 available

Press, Service (press@bis.org)

Publications, Service (Publications@bis.org)

Thu 9/24/09

Please find BIS Review No 113 attached as an Adobe Acrobat (PDF) file. Alternatively, you can access this BIS Review on the Bank for International Settlements’ website by clicking on http://www.bis.org/review/index.htm.

What’s included?

BIS Review No 113 (24 September 2009)

Zeti Akhtar Aziz: Current challenges confronting central banks

José De Gregorio: Monetary policy and financial stability – an emerging markets perspective

Njuguna Ndung’u: Central Bank of Kenya’s new website – improving communication

L Wilson Kamit: Financial sector reforms in Papua New Guinea

David Longworth: Promoting Canada‘s economic and financial well-being

e-mail press@bis.org.

BIS Review

Bank for International Settlements

BIS Review No 113 available

http://www.bis.org/review/index.htm

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"FOR THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF THE CORE THE PERIPHERY WAS PERIPHERAL": PROFESSOR PATRICK O'BRIEN

September 24, 2009 on 6:42 am | In Asia, Books, Development, Economics, Financial, Globalization, History, India, Research, Third World, World-System | No Comments

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“For the economic growth of the core, the

periphery was peripheral.”

Core vs. Periphery

Core = the West, which rose on the backs of the Periphery = the Third World.

Patrick O’Brien, however, does not think that the statistics support this popular formulation.

“Some three centuries after the voyages of discovery, Europe‘s trade with the periphery still formed a very small part of total economic activity. Even for maritime powers, like Britain, closely engaged with Asia, Africa, and Latin America, profits from that commerce probably financed less than 15 percent of gross investment between 1750-1850.

For the economic growth of the core, the periphery was peripheral.

(Economic History Review, 2nd Series, vol. 35, 1982).

Keith Thomas notes that as late as 1800, for all of Europe‘s supposed domination of world economy, other continents still outweighed it in population and wealth. Per capita income in the whole Third World averaged about $200; in China it was $228; in Western Europe it was $213. Vast discrepancies began to emerge only with the Industrial Revolution.

(In 1976, the figures were: Western Europe $2,325; the Third World, $355; and China, $369).

“The three centuries between 1500 and 1800 were merely the long preparation for modern inequality”

(NYRB, Nov. 22, 1984).

THE PERIPHERY WAS CENTRAL:

Dadabhai Naoroji

Dadabhai Naoroji (September 4, 1825June 30, 1917)

Poverty and Un-British Rule in India

Dadabhai Naoroji (September 4, 1825June 30, 1917) was a Parsi intellectual, educator, cotton trader, and an early Indian political leader. His book, Poverty and Un-British Rule in India, brought into the limelight the drain of India‘s wealth into Britain. He was a Member of Parliament (MP) in the British House of Commons between 1892 and 1895, and the first Asian to be a British MP.[1] He is also credited with the founding of the Indian National Congress, along with A.O. Hume and Dinshaw Edulji Wacha.

Early years

The son of Maneckbai and Naoroji Palanji Dordi, born into a poor family of Parsi-Zoroastrian priests in Navsari in Southern Gujarat. His father died when he was four, leaving his illiterate mother to raise him.[2] Naoroji was educated at Elphinstone College, Mumbai. At the early age of 25, he was appointed Assistant Professor at the Elphinstone Institution in 1850, becoming the first Indian to hold such an academic position.[3] Being an Athornan (ordained priest), Naoroji founded the Rahnumae Mazdayasne Sabha (Guides on the Mazdayasne Path) on 1 August 1851 to restore the Zoroastrian religion to its original purity and simplicity. In 1854, he also founded a fortnightly, the Rast Goftar (or The Truth Teller), to clarify Zoroastrian concepts. By 1855 he was Professor of Mathematics and Natural philosophy in Mumbai. He travelled to London in 1855 to become a partner in Cama & Co, opening a Liverpool location for the first Indian company to be established in Britain. Within 3 years, he had resigned on ethical grounds. In 1859 he established his own cotton trading company, Naoroji & Co.[4] Later he became professor of Gujarati at University College London.

In 1867 Naoroji helped establish the East India Association, one of the predecessor organizations of the Indian National Congress. In 1874 he became Prime Minister of Baroda and was a member of the Legislative Council of Mumbai (then Bombay) (1885-88). He also founded the Indian National Association from Calcutta a few years before the founding of the Indian National Congress in Mumbai, with the same objectives and practices. The two groups later merged into the INC, and Naoroji was elected President of the Congress in 1886.

Naoroji moved to Britain once again and continued his political involvement. Elected for the Liberal Party in Finsbury Central at the 1892 general election, he was the first British Indian MP. He refused to take the oath on the Bible as he was not a Christian, but was allowed to take the oath of office in the name of God on his copy of Khordeh Avesta. In Parliament he spoke on Irish Home Rule and the condition of the Indian people. In his political campaign and duties as an MP, he was assisted by Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the future Muslim nationalist and founder of Pakistan. In 1906, Naoroji was again elected president of the Indian National Congress. Naoroji was a staunch moderate within the Congress, during the phase when opinion in the party was split between the moderates and extremists.

Naoroji was known as the ‘Grand Old Man of India‘, a mentor to both Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Mahatma Gandhi. He was married to Gulbai from the age of eleven. He died in Mumbai June 30, 1917, at age 92.

Works

Literature

  • Rustom P. Masani, Dadabhai Naoroji (1939).
  • Munni Rawal, Dadabhai Naoroji, Prophet of Indian Nationalism, 1855-1900, New Delhi, Anmol Publications (1989).
  • S. R. Bakshi, Dadabhai Naoroji: The Grand Old Man, Anmol Publications (1991). ISBN 8170414261
  • Verinder Grover, ‘’Dadabhai Naoroji: A Biography of His Vision and Ideas’’ New Delhi, Deep & Deep Publishers (1998) ISBN 8176290114
  • Debendra Kumar Das, ed., ‘’Great Indian Economists : Their Creative Vision for Socio-Economic Development.’’ Vol. I: ‘Dadabhai Naoroji (1825-1917) : Life Sketch and Contribution to Indian Economy.’’ New Delhi, Deep and Deep (2004). ISBN 8176293156
  • P. D. Hajela, ‘’Economic Thoughts of Dadabhai Naoroji,’’ New Delhi, Deep & Deep (2001). ISBN 8176293377
  • Pash Nandhra, entry Dadabhai Naoroji in Brack et al. (eds).Dictionary of Liberal History; Politico’s, 1998
  • Zerbanoo Gifford, Dadabhai Naoroji: Britain‘s First Asian MP; Mantra Books, 1992

References

  1. Sumita Mukherjee, “‘Narrow-majority’ and ‘Bow-and-agree’: Public Attitudes Towards the Elections of the First Asian MPs in Britain, Dadabhai Naoroji and Mancherjee Merwanjee Bhownaggree, 1885-1906”, Journal of the Oxford University History Society, 2 (Michaelmas 2004).
  2. ‘Historic Figure:Dadabhai Naoroji’, Black and Asian Studies Newsletter, No.54, July 2009
  3. “Dr. Dadabhai Naoroji, ‘The Grand Old Man of India’”, Vohuman.org
  4. “Dadabhai Naoroji, 1825-1917″, Migration Histories. On line.

links

Romesh Chunder Dutt

Romesh Chunder Dutt

Bengali economic historian, writer

Born

August 13, 1848
Calcutta

Died

November 30, 1909
Baroda

Occupation

Historian, economist, linguist,
civil servant, politician

Spouse(s)

Manomohini Dutt (nee Bose)

Romesh Chunder Dutt, CIE was a Bengali civil servant, economic historian, writer, and translator of Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Formative years

Dutt was born into a distinguished Bengali Kayasth family well known for its members’ literary and academic achievements. His parents were Thakamani and Isam Chunder Dutt. His father, Isam Dutt, was a Deputy Collector of Bengal, whom Romesh often accompanied on official duties. Romesh was educated in various Bengali District schools, then at Hare School, Calcutta, founded by the philanthropist, David Hare. After his father’s untimely death in a boat accident in eastern Bengal, Romesh’s uncle, Shoshee Chunder Dutt, an accomplished writer, became his guardian in 1861. Romesh wrote about his uncle, “He used to sit at night with us and our favorite study used to be pieces from the works of the English poets.”[1] He was a relative of Toru Dutt, one of nineteenth century Bengal‘s most prominent poets.

He entered the University of Calcutta, Presidency College in 1864, then passed the First Arts examination in 1866, second in order of merit, and won a scholarship. While still a student in the B.A. class, without his family’s permission, he and two friends, Beharilal Gupta and Surendranath Banerjee, left for England in 1868.[2] Only one other Indian, Satyendra Nath Tagore, had ever before qualified for the Indian Civil Service. Romesh aimed to emulate Satyendranath Tagore’s feat. For a long time, before and after 1853, the year the ICS examination was introduced in England, only British officers were appointed to covenanted posts.[3] The 1860s saw the first attempts, largely successful, on the part of the Indians, and especially members of the Bengali intelligentsia, to occupy the superior official posts in India, until then completely dominated by the British.

At University College London, Dutt continued to study British writers. He studied law at Middle Temple, London, was called to the bar, and qualified for the Indian Civil Service in the open examination in 1869.[4]

Civil Service

Dutt entered the Indian Civil Service, or ICS, as an Assistant Magistrate of Alipur in 1871. His official career was a test and a proof of the liberal promise of equality to all her Majesty’s subjects “irrespective of color and creed” in Queen Victoria’s Proclamation of November 1, 1858,[5] which often contrasted with an implicit distrust of Indians, especially from those in positions of authority within the elite colonial administrative system.

A famine in Meherpur, District of Nadia in 1874 and another in Dakhin Shahbazpur (Bhola District) in 1876, followed by a disastrous cyclone, required emergency relief and economic recovery operations, which Dutt managed successfully. By December, 1882, Dutt achieved his appointment to the executive branch of the Service, the first Indian to achieve executive rank. He served as administrator for Backerganj, Mymensingh, Burdwan, Donapur, and Midnapore. He became Burdwan’s District Officer in 1893, Commissioner (offtg.) of Burdwan Division in 1894, and Divisional Commissioner for Orissa in 1895.

As Dutt’s biographer commented, “In the absence of even the rudiments of representative institutions entry into the higher Civil Services presented the only opportunity to an Indian to influence the government of his own country.”[6] He sat for a time in the Bengal Legislative Council. Although he won high praise for his administrative work, and the Companionship of the Indian Empire was awarded him in 1892,[7] Dutt did not always agree with official views on the causes of poverty in India or on the problems of administration.

As his official recommendations and reports reflected, Dutt was especially troubled by the lack of assured tenants’ rights or rights of transfer for those who tilled the land. He considered the land taxes to be ruinous, a block to savings, and the source of famines. He also felt the effectiveness of administrators was limited by the absence of representative channels for the concerns of the population being governed. He retired from the ICS as the Commissioner of Orissa in 1897 while only 49 years of age. Retirement freed him to enter public life and pursue writing.

After retirement in 1898 he returned to England as a Lecturer in Indian History at University College, London where he completed his famous thesis on economic nationalism. He spent the next six years in London before returning once again to India as Dewan of Baroda state, a post he had been offered before he left for Britain. He was extremely popular in Baroda where the Maharaja, Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III and his family members and all other staff used to call him the Babu Dewan, as a mark of personal respect. He also became a member of the Royal Commission on Indian Decentralisation in 1907.[8][9]

While still in office, he died in Baroda at the relatively young age of 64 in early 1909.

Politics

He was active in moderate nationalist politics and was an active Congressman in that party’s initial phase. He was twice the president of the Indian National Congress. He was president of the Indian National Congress in 1899.

Literature

Dutt served as the first president of Bangiya Sahitya Parishad in 1894, while Rabindranath Tagore and Navinchandra Sen were the vice-presidents of the society.[10] This was the society founded by L. Leotard and Kshetrapal Chakraborty in 1893 to cultivate Bengali literature. Enriched by contributions from Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar, Romesh Chunder Dutt, Satyendranath Dutt, Binoy Krishna Deb, Ritendranath Tagore, Premsundar Bose and Jatindranath Pal, its collections include over 150,000 books and important Bengali and Sanskrit manuscripts and cultural artifacts, including the only manuscript of Shrikrsnakirtana.

History

Poverty and low wages were among the indirect products of colonial rule. Romesh Dutt traced a decline in standards of living to the nineteenth-century deindustrialization of the subcontinent and the narrowing of sources of wealth which followed:

India in the eighteenth century was a great manufacturing as well as great agricultural country, and the products of the Indian loom supplied the markets of Asia and of Europe. It is, unfortunately, true that the East Indian Company and the British Parliament … discouraged Indian manufactures in the early years of British rule in order to encourage the rising manufactures of England . . . millions of Indian artisans lost their earnings; the population of India lost one great source of their wealth.[11]

Radhakamal Mukerjee and Romesh Dutt directed attention to the deepening internal differentiation of Indian society appearing in the abrupt articulation of local economies with the world market, accelerated urban-rural polarization, the division between intellectual and manual labor, and the toll of recurrent devastating famines.[12]

Works

References

  1. R. C. Dutt, Romesh Chunder Dutt, (1968) Internet Archive, Million Books Project, p. 10.
  2. Jnanendranath Gupta, Life and Works of Romesh Chandra Dutt, CIE, (London: J.M.Dent and Sons Ltd., 1911); while young Romesh came out unnoticed, Beharilal, possibly his closest friend ever, was chased all the way down to the Calcutta docks by his “poor” father, who could not, however, successfully persuade his son to return to the safety of his parental home. Later, in England, both the friends took the civil service examination successfully, becoming the 2nd and 3rd Indians to join the ICS. The third person in the group, Surendranath Banerjee, also cleared the test, but was incorrectly disqualified, as being over-age.
  3. Nitish Sengupta, History of the Bengali-speaking People, UBS Publishers’ Distributors Pvt. Ltd. (2002), p. 275. ISBN 8174763554.
  4. “Selected Poetry of Romesh Chunder Dutt (1848-1909)”, University of Toronto (2002) On line.
  5. Queen Victoria’s Proclamation, November 1, 1858
  6. R. C. Dutt, Romesh Chunder Dutt, (1968) Internet Archive, Million Books Project, p. 51.
  7. J. K. Ratcliffe “A Note on the Late Romesh C. Dutt”, The Ramayana and the Mahabharata condensed into English Verse (1899) at Internet Sacred Texts Archive
  8. Hansard, HC Deb 26 August 1907 vol 182 c149
  9. “Selected Poetry of Romesh Chunder Dutt (1848-1909), Notes on Life and Works,” Representative Poetry Online, University of Toronto (2002) On line.
  10. “Vangiya Sahitya Parishad”, Banglapedia
  11. Economic History of India, vol. pp. vi–vii, quoted by Prasannan Parthasarathi, “The Transition to a Colonial Economy: Weavers, Merchants and Kings in South India 1720–1800″, Cambridge U. Press. On line, excerpt.
  12. Manu Goswami, “Autonomy and Comparability: Notes on the Anticolonial and the Postcolonial”, Boundary 2, Summer 2005; 32: 201 – 225 Duke University Journals.

links

PERIPHERY WAS CENTRAL VIEW:

PERIPHERY WAS DE-DEVELOPED BY CORE?

Poverty and low wages were among the indirect products of colonial rule. Romesh Dutt traced a decline in standards of living to the nineteenth-century deindustrialization of the subcontinent and the narrowing of sources of wealth which followed:

India in the eighteenth century was a great manufacturing as well as great agricultural country, and the products of the Indian loom supplied the markets of Asia and of Europe. It is, unfortunately, true that the East Indian Company and the British Parliament … discouraged Indian manufactures in the early years of British rule in order to encourage the rising manufactures of England . . . millions of Indian artisans lost their earnings; the population of India lost one great source of their wealth.[11]

Radhakamal Mukerjee and Romesh Dutt directed attention to the deepening internal differentiation of Indian society appearing in the abrupt articulation of local economies with the world market, accelerated urban-rural polarization, the division between intellectual and manual labor, and the toll of recurrent devastating famines.[12]

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BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS BIS REVIEW NO. 112: MACROECONOMICS AND THE CRISIS

September 23, 2009 on 4:29 pm | In Economics, Financial, Globalization, Research | No Comments

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BIS Review

Bank for International Settlements

BIS Review No 112 available

Press, Service (press@bis.org)

Publications, Service (Publications@bis.org)

Wed 9/23/09

Please find BIS Review No 112 attached as an Adobe Acrobat (PDF) file. Alternatively, you can access this BIS Review on the Bank for International Settlements’ website by clicking on http://www.bis.org/review/index.htm.

What’s included?

BIS Review No 112 (23 September 2009)

José De Gregorio: Macroeconomics, economists and the crisis

Njuguna Ndung’u: Financial sector collaboration

Caleb M Fundanga: Campaign to keep Zambia clean and healthy

Lars E O Svensson: Flexible inflation targeting – lessons from the financial crisis

Gertrude Tumpel-Gugerell: Business models in banking – is there a best practice?

e-mail press@bis.org.

BIS Review

Bank for International Settlements

BIS Review No 112 available

http://www.bis.org/review/index.htm

Press, Service (press@bis.org)

Publications, Service (Publications@bis.org)

Wed 9/23/09

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CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP ESSAY: IS THERE A "GLOBAL WORLD SYSTEM"?

September 22, 2009 on 9:46 pm | In Books, Earth, Economics, Financial, France, Globalization, History, Research, World-System | No Comments

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Atlantic history: concept and contours

by Bernard Bailyn – 2005 – History – 149 pages

have persisted, and continue to unify the cultures of the Atlantic world in the course of the nineteenth century they became part of a global world system.

Bailyn’s notes the barbarity of the conquerors did not vary by religious conviction or national origin. “Puritan New England was not different from Mexico or Peru. ‘”It was a fearful sight,”‘ the pious gentle Pilgrim leader William Bradford wrote of New England’s Pequot War (1637), “‘to see [the Indians] frying in the fire and the streams of blood quenching the same, and horrible was the stink and scent thereof.’” Page 65. Indeed the Dutch and English conquerors read accounts of the Spanish conquistadors and were more than familiar with their techniques. The Dutch, having been subjects of Spain, may have been less frequently cruel in their dealings with native peoples than others, but were capable of exceeding cruelty. For instance, Dutch soldiers in a raid near New Amsterdam cut some of the native children in pieces “before the eyes of their parents, and threw the pieces thrown into the fire or into the water.” Pg. 63.

Clearly, the Spanish were not the only conquistadors.

Product Details:

  • Hardcover: 160 pages
  • Publisher: Harvard University Press (March 31, 2005)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0674016882
  • ISBN-13: 978-0674016880

Fernand Braudel

Some analysts promoted the economic base of world history approach, marked by the “world-economy” model of Fernand Braudel. Braudel and the scholars of the French Annales school stressed temporal depth and geographic breadth, broke down disciplinary boundaries, and described vast structural forces that left human agency “a tiny island, almost a prison.”

Fernand Braudel histoire globale and histoire totale

Une histoire à l’échelle globale

Fernand Braudel (1902-1985)

The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II

trans. Siân Reynolds (New York: Harper & Row, 1976)

Fernand Braudel

Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902November 27, 1985), was the foremost French historian of the postwar era, and a leader of the Annales School. He organized his scholarship around three great projects, each worth several decades of intense study: “The Mediterranean” (1923-49, then 1949-66), “Civilization and Capitalism” (1955-79), and the unfinished, “Identity of France” (1970-85). His reputation stems in part from his writings, but even more from his success in making the Annales School the most important engine of historical research in France and much of the world after 1950. As the dominant leader of the Annales School of historiography in the 1950s and 1960s, he exerted enormous influence on historical writing in France and other countries.

Braudel has been considered one of the greatest of those modern historians who have emphasised the role of large scale socio-economic factors in the making and telling of history.[1] He can also be considered as one of the precursors of World Systems Theory.

Life

Braudel was born in Luméville-en-Ornois (as of 1973, merged with and part of Gondrecourt-le-Château), in the département of the Meuse, France, where he also lived with his paternal grandmother for a long time. His father, who was a natural mathematician, aided him in his studies. Braudel also studied a good deal of Latin and a little Greek. He loved history and wrote poetry. Braudel wanted to be a doctor, but his father opposed this idea. At the age of 20, he became an agrégé in history. While teaching at a secondary school in Algeria, 1923-32, he became fascinated by the Mediterranean Sea and everything about it. From 1932 to 1935 he taught in the Paris lycées of Pasteur, Condorcet, and Henry IV. He met Lucien Febvre, the co-founder of the influential Annales journal, who was to have a great influence on his work.

Brazil

By 1900 the French solidified their cultural dominance in Brazil through the establishment of the Brazilian Academy of Fine Arts. São Paulo still lacked a university, however, and in 1934 Francophile Julio de Mesquita Filho invited anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss and Braudel to help establish one. The result was formation of the new University of São Paulo. Braudel later said that the time in Brazil was the “greatest period of his life.”[2] He returned to Paris in 1937 and in 1939, he joined the army but was captured in 1940 and became a prisoner of war in a camp near Lübeck in Germany, where, working from memory, he put together his great work La Méditerranée et le Monde Méditerranéen a l’époque de Philippe II (The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II). Part of his motivation for writing the book, he said, was that, as a “Northerner,” he had come to love the Mediterranean. After the war, he worked with Febvre in a new college, founded separately from the Sorbonne, dedicated to social and economic history.

Work

Braudel had already started archival research on his doctorate on the Mediterranean when he fell under the influence of the Annales School around 1938 when he entered the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes as an instructor in history. He worked with Lucien Febvre, who would later read the early versions of Braudel’s magnum opus and provide him with editorial advice. At the outbreak of war in 1939, he was called up and subsequently taken prisoner by the Germans, 1940-45. While a prisoner of war Braudel was without access to his books or notes; he relied on his prodigious memory to contemplate and draft his work.

In 1949 he was elected to the Collège de France upon Lucien Febvre’s retirement. In 1947, with Febvre and Charles Morazé, Braudel founded the famous Sixième Section for ‘Economic and social sciences’ at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes. He retired in 1968, and in 1983 was elected to the Académie Française.

In 1962, he wrote A History of Civilizations to be the basis for a history course, but its rejection of the traditional event-based narrative was too radical for the French ministry of education, which rejected it [3]

Besides La Méditerranée, his most famous work is the three-volume Civilisation Matérielle, Economie et Capitalisme, XVe-XVIIIe (Capitalism and Material Life, 1400-1800), which first appeared in 1979. It is a broad-scaled history of the pre-industrial modern world, presented in the minute detail demanded by the school called cliometrics focusing on how people made economies work. Like all his major works, it mixes traditional economic material with much description of the social impact of economic events on everyday life, and gives much attention to food, fashion, social customs and similar areas.

Braudel claims that there are long-term cycles in the capitalist economy which developed in Europe in the 12th century. Cities and later nation-states follow each other subsequently as centers of these cycles. Venice and Genoa in 13th to 15th century (1250–1510), Antwerp in 16th (1500–1569), Amsterdam in 16th to 18th (1570–1733), London and England in 18th and 19th (1733–1896). He argued that “structures” — a word he uses to mean many kinds of organized behaviours, attitudes, and conventions, as well as literal structures and infrastructures — that were built up in Europe during the Middle Ages contributed to or were perhaps responsible for the success of European-based cultures up to the present day. Much of this he appears to attribute to the long-lived independence of city-states, which although later subjected by geographic states, were not always completely suppressed—probably for reasons of usefulness.

One feature of Braudel’s work is his evident compassion for the suffering of marginal people.[4] He points out the obvious: that most surviving historical sources come from the wealthy (or at least literate) classes — those who are either rich or aspire to be. He gives importance to the apparently ephemeral lives of slaves, serfs, and peasants, as well as to the urban poor, and shows their contributions to the wealth and power of their respective masters and societies. Indeed, he appears to think that these people form the real material of civilization. His work is often illustrated with contemporary depictions of daily life, rarely with pictures of noblemen or kings.

La Méditerranée

His first book, La Méditerranée et le Monde Méditerranéen à l’Epoque de Philippe II (1949) (The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II) was his most influential. The Mediterranean legacy in Europe included cultivated crops consumption habits, monotheistic religion, and mental and cultural tools such as the language, laws, and pretensions of the state, as well as urbanism, the prestige of the written word, and the instruments of chronology. The culture ceased to be dominant in the 15th or 16th century, but the new Atlantic culture embodied much of it and extended its elements to Siberia, the Americas, and the Antipodes.

For Braudel there is no single Mediterranean sea. There are many seas—indeed a “vast, complex expanse” in which men operate. Life is conducted on the Mediterranean: people travel, fish, fight wars, and drown in the many seas. Again, the sea gives on to plains and islands. Life on the plains is diverse and complex; the poorer south is affected by religious diversity (Catholicism and Islam), as well as by intrusions – both cultural and economic – from the wealthier north. In other words the Mediterranean cannot be understood independently from what is exterior to it. Any rigid adherence to boundaries is a way of falsifying the situation.

The first level of time, geographical time, is that of the environment, with its slow, almost imperceptible change, its repetition and cycles. Change may be slow, but it is irresistible. The second level of time comprises social and cultural history, with social groupings, empires and civilizations. Change at this level is much more rapid than that of the environment; he looks at two or three centuries in order to spot a particular pattern, such as the rise and fall of various aristocracies. The third level of time is that of events (histoire événementielle). This is the history of individuals with names. This, for Braudel, is the time of surfaces and deceptive effects. It is the time of the “courte durée” proper and it is exemplified by Part 3 of The Mediterranean which treats of “events, politics and people.”

Braudel’s Mediterranean is a complex of seas but just as important it is also the desert and the mountains. The desert creates a nomadic form of social organization where the whole community moves; mountain life is sedentary. Transhumance is also a factor—that is, the movement from the mountain to the plain, or vice versa in a given season.

Braudel’s vast panoramic view used insights from other social sciences, employed the concept of the longue durée, and downplayed the importance of specific events. It was widely admired, but most historians did not try to replicate it and instead focused on their specialized monographs. The book dramatically raised the worldwide profile of the Annales School.

Annales School

Braudel became the leader of the second generation of Annales historians after 1945. He obtained funding from the Rockefeller Foundation in New York and founded the 6th Section of the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, which was devoted to the study of history and the social sciences.[5] In 1962 he and Gaston Berger used Ford Foundation money and government funds to create a new independent foundation, the Fondation Maison des sciences de l’homme (FMSH), which Braudel directed from 1970 until his death. It was housed in the building called “Maison des Sciences de l’Homme”. FMSH stressed international networking to spread the Annales gospel across Europe and the world. After a sort of palace coup in 1968 he had to share power, and in 1972 he gave up all editorial responsibility on the journal (although his name remained on the masthead).

Historiography

Prior to the Annales approach, says Braudel, the writing of history was focused on the courte durée (short span), or on what is known as histoire événementielle (a history of events). Political and diplomatic history has been the prime example of histoire événementielle, which he rejected as too trivial.

His followers admired his use of the longue durée approach to stress slow, and often imperceptible effects of space, climate and technology on the actions of human beings in the past.[6] The Annales historians, after living through two world wars and incredible political upheavals in France, were deeply uncomfortable with the notion that multiple ruptures and discontinuities created history. They preferred to stress inertia and the longue durée. That is, the continuities of the deepest structures were central to history, beside which upheavals in institutions or the superstructure of social life were of little significance, for history lies beyond the reach of conscious actors, especially the will of revolutionaries. They rejected the Marxist idea that history should be used as a tool to foment and foster revolutions. [7] A proponent of historical materialism, Braudel rejected Marxist materialism, stressing the equal importance of infrastructure and superstructure, both of which reflected enduring social, economic, and cultural realities. Braudel’s structures, including both mental and environmental frameworks, actually determine the “long-term” course of events in constraining actions on, and by, humans over a duration which escapes the consciousness of the actors involved.

Capitalism

Braudel in his three-volume Civilisation Matérielle, Economie, et Capitalisme (1979) (Capitalism and Material Life ), a sweeping study of preindustrial capitalism the world over, returned to economic themes that interested the Annales historians of the 1930s but had otherwise been neglected by the school. There is little original research but instead a synthesis of a great deal of work by many scholars, some of it outdated. Braudel prefers descriptive detail rather than theoretical constructs, avoids all economic theory, and uses statistical data as illustration rather than an analytic tool.

Braudel argued that capitalists have typically been monopolists, not, as is usually assumed, entrepreneurs operating in competitive markets. He argued that capitalists did not specialize and did not use free markets. He thus diverged from both liberal (Adam Smith) and Marxian interpretations. In Braudel’s view, under capitalism, the state has served as a guarantor of monopolists rather than as the protector of competition usually portrayed. He said capitalists have had power and cunning on their side, and they have been arrayed against the majority of the population.[8]

Recognition

SUNY Binghamton in New York has a Fernand Braudel Center, and there is an Instituto Fernand Braudel de Economia Mundial in São Paulo, Brazil.

Works

  • La Méditerranée et le Monde Méditerranéen a l’époque de Philippe II 3 vols. (Originally appeared in 1949; revised several times)

* La part du milieu (vol. 1) ISBN 2-253-06168-9

* Destins collectifs et mouvements d’ensemble (vol. 2) ISBN 2-253-06169-7

* Les événements, la politique et les hommes (vol. 3) ISBN 2-253-06170-0

  • Ecrits sur l’Histoire (1969) ISBN 2-08-081023-5
  • Civilisation matérielle, économie et capitalisme, XVe-XVIIIe siècle

* Les structures du quotidien (vol. 1, 1967) ISBN 2-253-06455-6

* Les jeux de l’échange (vol. 2, 1979) ISBN 2-253-06456-4

* Le temps du monde (vol. 3, 1979) ISBN 2-253-06457-2

  • Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th Centuries, 3 vols. (1979) English translation by Siân Reynolds

* The Structures of Everyday Life (vol.1) ISBN 0-06-014845-2

* The Wheels of Commerce (vol. 2) ISBN 0-06-015091-2

* The Perspective of the World (vol. 3) ISBN 0-06-015317-2

  • On History (1980), English translation of Ecrits sur l’Histoire by Siân Reynolds
  • La Dynamique du Capitalisme (1985) ISBN 2-08-081192-4
  • The Identity of France (1986)
  • Ecrits sur l’Histoire II (1990) ISBN 2-08-081304-8
  • Out of Italy, 1450–1650 (1991)
  • A History of Civilizations (1995)
  • Les mémoires de la Méditerranée (1998)
  • The Mediterranean in the Ancient World (UK) and Memories of the Mediterranean (USA): (2001) English translation of Les mémoires de la Méditerranée by Siân Reynolds
  • Personal Testimony Journal of Modern History, vol. 44, no. 4. (December 1972)

References

  • Aurell, Jaume. “Autobiographical Texts as Historiographical Sources: Rereading Fernand Braudel and Annie Kriegel.” Biography 2006 29(3): 425-445. Issn: 0162-4962 Fulltext: Project Muse
  • Burke, Peter. The French Historical Revolution: The Annales School 1929-89, (1990), excerpt and text search
  • Carrard, Philippe. “Figuring France: The Numbers and Tropes of Fernand Braudel,” Diacritics, Vol. 18, No. 3 (Autumn, 1988), pp. 2-19 in JSTOR
  • Carrard, Philippe. Poetics of the New History: French Historical Discourse from Braudel to Chartier, (1992)
  • Pierre Daix, Braudel, (Paris: Flammarion, 1995)
  • Dosse, Francois. New History in France: The Triumph of the Annales, (1994, first French edition, 1987) excerpt and text search
  • Giuliana Gemelli, Fernand Braudel (Paris: Odile Jacob, 1995)
  • Harris, Olivia. “Braudel: Historical Time and the Horror of Discontinuity.” History Workshop Journal 2004 (57): 161-174. Issn: 1363-3554 Fulltext: OUP
  • Hexter, J. H. “Fernand Braudel and the Monde Braudellien,” Journal of Modern History, 1972, vol. 44, pp. 480-539 in JSTOR
  • Hufton, Olwen. “Fernand Braudel”, Past and Present, No. 112. (Aug., 1986), pp. 208–213. in JSTOR
  • Hunt, Lynn. “French History in the Last Twenty Years: the Rise and Fall of the Annales Paradigm.” Journal of Contemporary History 1986 21(2): 209-224. Issn: 0022-0094 Fulltext: in Jstor
  • Kaplan, Steven Laurence. “Long-Run Lamentations: Braudel on France,” The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 63, No. 2, A Special Issue on Modern France. (Jun., 1991), pp. 341-353. in JSTOR
  • Kinser, Samuel. “Annaliste Paradigm? The Geo-historical Structuralism of Fernand Braudel.” American Historical Review 1981 86(1): 63-105. Issn: 0002-8762 Fulltext: in Jstor
  • Lai, Cheng-chung. “Braudel’s Concepts and Methodology Reconsidered.” European Legacy 2000 5(1): 65-86. Issn: 1084-8770 Fulltext: PDF document
  • Lai, Cheng-chung. Braudel’s Historiography Reconsidered, Maryland: University Press of America, 2004. Book PDF file
  • Moon, David. “Fernand Braudel and the Annales Schoolonline edition
  • Santamaria, Ulysses, and Bailey, Anne M. “A Note on Braudel’s Structure as Duration.” History and Theory 1984 23(1): 78-83. Issn: 0018-2656 Fulltext: in Jstor
  • Stoianovich, Traian. French Historical Method: The Annales Paradigm, (1976)
  • Wallerstein, Immanuel. “Time and Duration: The Unexcluded Middle” (1997) online version

Notes

  1. i.e. Fernand Braudel, “The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II” (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996)
  2. Thomas E. Skidmore, “Levi-Strauss, Braudel and Brazil: a Case of Mutual Influence.” Bulletin of Latin American Research 2003 22(3): 340-349. Issn: 0261-3050 Fulltext: Ebsco
  3. Richard Mayne, “Translator’s Introduction” in Fernand Braudel, “A History of Civilization,” (New York: Penguin Books, 1993), pp. xxvi-xxvii.
  4. Fernand Braudel, A History of Civilizations, translated by Richard Mayne (New York: Penguin Books, 1993).
  5. He received an additional $1 million from the Ford Foundation in 1960. Francis X. Sutton, “The Ford Foundation’s Transatlantic Role and Purposes, 1951-81.” Review (Fernand Braudel Center) 2001 24(1): 77-104. Issn: 0147-9032
  6. See Wallerstein, “Time and Duration” (1997)
  7. Olivia Harris, “Braudel: Historical Time and the Horror of Discontinuity.” History Workshop Journal (2004) (57): 161-174. Issn: 1363-3554 Fulltext: OUP
  8. Immanuel Wallerstein, “Braudel on Capitalism, or Everything Upside Down.” Journal of Modern History 1991 63(2): 354-361. Issn: 0022-2801 Fulltext: in Jstor
  9. in the course of the nineteenth century they became part of a global world system.

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BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS BIS REVIEW NO. 110: CURRENCY OPERATIONS

September 22, 2009 on 6:42 pm | In Economics, Financial, Globalization, Research | No Comments

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BIS Review

Bank for International Settlements

BIS Review No 110 available

Press, Service (press@bis.org)

Publications, Service (Publications@bis.org)

Mon 9/21/09

Please find BIS Review No 110 attached as an Adobe Acrobat (PDF) file. Alternatively, you can access this BIS Review on the Bank for International Settlements’ website by clicking on http://www.bis.org/review/index.htm.

What’s included?

BIS Review No 110 (21 September 2009)

T T Mboweni: Overview of the South African economy

Anselmo L S Teng: Conference on human resources issues (opening remarks)

Anselmo L S Teng: Conference on human resources issues (closing remarks)

Jan F Qvigstad: Comments on Lars E O Svensson’s lecture “Policy expectations and policy evaluations – the role of transparency and communication”

S Budi Rochadi: Currency operations and management

e-mail press@bis.org.

BIS Review

Bank for International Settlements

BIS Review No 110 available

http://www.bis.org/review/index.htm

Press, Service (press@bis.org)

Publications, Service (Publications@bis.org)

Mon 9/21/09

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BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS BIS REVIEW NO. 111: CRISIS ENVIRONMENT

September 22, 2009 on 6:29 pm | In Development, Economics, Financial, Globalization, Research, Third World | No Comments

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BIS Review

Bank for International Settlements

BIS Review No 111 available

Press, Service (press@bis.org)

Publications, Service (Publications@bis.org)

Tue 9/22/09

Please find BIS Review No 111 attached as an Adobe Acrobat (PDF) file. Alternatively, you can access this BIS Review on the Bank for International Settlements’ website by clicking on http://www.bis.org/review/index.htm.

What’s included?

BIS Review No 111 (22 September 2009)

Njuguna Ndung’u: Credit information sharing to enhance financial sector development

Mallam Sanusi Lamido Sanusi: Developments in the banking system in Nigeria

Caleb M Fundanga: Improving financial inclusion in Zambia

Karolina Ekholm: Balancing monetary policy – when theory meets practice

V K Sharma: Supervising in a crisis environment

e-mail press@bis.org.

BIS Review

Bank for International Settlements

BIS Review No 111 available

http://www.bis.org/review/index.htm

Press, Service (press@bis.org)

Publications, Service (Publications@bis.org)

Tue 9/22/09

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IRON ORE GENEVA FORUM OCTOBER 8 2009

September 22, 2009 on 4:29 am | In Economics, Financial, Globalization, Research | No Comments

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Freight Investor Services London

FIS Iron Ore Geneva Forum

FIS Iron Ore Geneva Forum 8th Oct 2009

Lina Liu (LinaL@freightinvestor.com)

Mon 9/21/09

Dear all,

Please see attached for invitation to the FIS Iron Ore Geneva Forum on the 8th Oct 2009.

As we only have limited spaces left, please RSVP to info@freightinvestorsolutions.com if you are able to attend the event.

Regards
Lina Liu
Freight Investor Services London

Tel : +44 (0)20 7090 1124

Mob : +44 (0) 78 09437605
Fax : +44 (0)020 7090 1121

E-mail : linal@freightinvestor.com

Address: 9th 80 Cannon Street London EC4N 6HL

http://www.freightinvestorservices.com

FIS Iron Ore Geneva Forum

FIS Iron Ore Geneva Forum 8th Oct 2009

Freight Investor Services London

http://www.freightinvestorservices.com

Lina Liu (LinaL@freightinvestor.com)

Mon 9/21/09

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CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP ESSAY: G20 SUMMIT IN PITTSBURGH SEPTEMBER 2009

September 21, 2009 on 4:33 am | In Development, Economics, Financial, Globalization, Research, Third World, World-System | No Comments

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G20 summit

Groping Towards a Cambridge Forecast Group-Type

Analysis

The next G20 summit is due to take place at Pittsburgh‘s David L. Lawrence Convention Center on September 24–25, 2009

Calls for a new global economic equilibrium are growing.

“We need to have rebalancing of growth and increase in consumption in the emerging markets to have enough growth in the short term,” International Monetary Fund chief Dominique Strauss-Kahn told the Financial Times.

The next G20 summit is due to take place at Pittsburgh‘s David L. Lawrence Convention Center on September 24–25, 2009.[1] Announced shortly after the April 2009 G-20 London summit, U.S. President Barack Obama volunteered to host this summit, initially planning to hold it in New York City and coordinating it with the opening of the United Nations General Assembly. However, due to coordination issues, on May 28, 2009, the Obama Administration announced a change of venue to Pittsburgh in order to highlight the city’s economic recovery following the collapse of its manufacturing sector in the latter half of the 20th century. In response to the Global credit crisis, a G20 summit in one year was proposed shortly after the London summit in April 2009. The second G20 2009 summit will hopefully evaluate the measures taken in April 2009 in London and implement new policies which will stimulate the global economy.

Amongst the issues to be discussed is a proposal to radically reform the International Monetary Fund.[2] French President Nicolas Sarkozy also suggested that there would be an evaluation of measures already taken.[3]

The primary venue of the summit will be the David L. Lawrence Convention Center, which was at one point the largest LEED certified building in the world.[4] A working dinner for world leaders will also be held at the Phipps Conservatory & Botanical Gardens, chosen to highlight its environmentally friendly features including an earth-sheltered welcome center and a Tropical Forest Conservatory described as the world’s most energy efficient.[5] Other venues to be used around the city include The Andy Warhol Museum, the Pittsburgh High School for the Creative and Performing Arts and Rosemont, the working farm of Teresa Heinz Kerry.[5]

Direct Energy Business, a retail energy supplier headquartered in Pittsburgh, will be greening the electricity usage of the city of Pittsburgh for both days of the G-20 Summit by securing Renewable Energy Certificates, or RECs.[6]

Preparations

In the weeks leading up to the conference, many measures have been taken to prepare Pittsburgh for the conference. Many streets in Downtown Pittsburgh have been re-paved and a pre-season NHL hockey game for the Pittsburgh Penguins at nearby Mellon Arena has been postponed. During the week of the G20, many streets will be closed and traffic patterns will be adjusted. Many public schools, universities and nearby businesses will be closed, cancelling classes or working remotely for the duration of the conference.

Protests

Expected participants in protests include peace, environmental, labor and social justice organizations.[7] Alternate events will include a Peoples’ Summit (not a protest) at the beginning of the week leading up the summit, followed by tent cities, demonstrations and other summits. Preceding the summit, there will be an alternative conference on Tuesday called Freedom Conference 2009[8] that stresses conservative grassroots solutions and free-market approaches. During the first day of the Summit the Pittsburgh G-20 Resistance Project will hold a march and a day of direct action. On the second day there will be Peoples’ March and rally in downtown Pittsburgh.[9]

Security

Thousands of protesters are expected during the week of the Summit, which has been classified as a National Special Security Event. Security will be coordinated by the United States Secret Service working in conjunction with the Pittsburgh Police. It is estimated that 4,000 police officers have been requested, and the city currently only has 900 police officers. The Pennsylvania State Police have committed more than 1,000 officers for the downtown event, including SWAT, helicopter, mounted, undercover, bicycle and motorcycle officers. Allegheny County has had 75 officers specifically trained by and embedded into the Pittsburgh Police Bureau for the event since June. New York City and Baltimore have committed some officers, as well as Pittsburgh suburbs. All officers regardless of department will be under the command of the Secret Service for the event days.[10]

Mayor Luke Ravenstahl is also attempting to alleviate problems by meeting beforehand with some of the protest groups.[11]

See also

References

  1. Pittsburgh To Host Next G20 Summit“. KDKA. May 28, 2009. http://kdka.com/politics/G20.summit.Pittsburgh.2.1022570.html. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
  2. Morris, Nigel; Grice, Andrew (April 4, 2009). “Brown’s assignment for next G20 meeting: a blueprint for IMF reform“. The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/browns-assignment-for-next-g20-meeting-a-blueprint-for-imf-reform-1662232.html. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
  3. New G20 summit in September in New York: Sarkozy“. Economic Times. April 3, 2009. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/News/International-Business/New-G20-summit-in-September-in-New-York-Sarkozy/articleshow/4352506.cms. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
  4. David L. Lawrence Convention Center“. Archived from the original on July 25, 2009. http://www.webcitation.org/5iXo8JhNx. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
  5. a b White House chooses G20 venues around Pittsburgh“. Pittsburgh Business Times. August 3, 2009. http://www.bizjournals.com/pittsburgh/stories/2009/08/03/daily2.html. Retrieved August 6, 2009. It’s official: Direct Energy Business is “greening up” the city of Pittsburgh for the G-20 Summit.“. Archived from the original on July 25, 2009. http://www.webcitation.org/5iXo96eaL. Retrieved July 1, 2009. Action at the G-20 Summit“. Thomas Merton Center. http://www.thomasmertoncenter.org/g20action.htm. Groups organize alternative in Oakland to economic summit“. Pittsburgh Tribune Review, August 27, 2009. Archived from the original on 2009-09-11. http://www.webcitation.org/5ji2ByMAl. Retrieved 2009-09-09. G-20 Summit Organizing at a Glance“. Archived from the original on 2009-09-07. http://www.webcitation.org/5jc5Q3suJ. Retrieved August 21, 2009. 1,000 state police on the way for G-20 summit“. Archived from the original on 2009-09-07. http://www.webcitation.org/5jc5QRpB4. Retrieved 2009-09-03. Mandak, Joe (July 30, 2009). “G-20 police planning a puzzle for Pittsburgh chief“. Associated Press. http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5hUOiCuqnno7rA5O4JKyPRr3wQ_twD99OTAV00. Retrieved August 6, 2009.

External links

More: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2009_G-20_Pittsburgh_summit

G20 summit

Groping Towards a Cambridge Forecast Group Analysis

The next G20 summit is due to take place at Pittsburgh‘s David L. Lawrence Convention Center on September 24–25, 2009

Calls for a new global economic equilibrium are growing.

“We need to have rebalancing of growth and increase in consumption in the emerging markets to have enough growth in the short term,” International Monetary Fund chief Dominique Strauss-Kahn told the Financial Times.

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MOVIES AS A TOOL IN ANALYZING GLOBALIZATION THE MIDDLE EAST AND THE WORLD-SYSTEM

September 21, 2009 on 2:27 am | In Art, Film, Globalization, History, Philosophy, Research, World-System | No Comments

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Movies as a Tool in Analyzing Globalization

the Middle East and the World-System

MOVIES AND THE WORLD-SYSTEM

One example of such a movie:

The House on Chelouche Street

Ha-Bayit Berechov Chelouche (1973)

The House on Chelouche Street (USA)

http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0069771/

http://www.imdb.com/mymovies/list

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DISRAELI'S "TWO NATIONS" OF 1845 VERSUS 2009'S TWO REGIONS

September 20, 2009 on 7:09 pm | In Books, Development, Economics, Financial, Globalization, History, United Kingdom, World-System | No Comments

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The nineteenth century analysis of essential

social change centered around the “two

nations” within and this epithet is appropriately

the subtitle of Disraeli’s 1845 novel, “Sybil.

The analogue for 2009 is the pivotal cleavage

between the West and the Third World.

Sybil, or the Two Nations

Benjamin Disraeli

1845

Sybil, or the Two Nations, which contains the key to Disraeli’s mind, was first published in 1845 and is set during the period 1837-1844. It depicts the storms of Chartist agitation and social disturbance in England. The Chartist movement was, of course, a working class movement that wished to bring about equal political and social rights for all classes by legal means.

Here is a dramatic exchange between the aristocratic Egremont and a young stranger in Sybil. Egremont exclaims that “our queen reigns over the greatest nation that ever existed”. The riposte is immediate. “Which nation?” asks the younger stranger, “for she reigns over two”…

“Yes,”… “Two nations; between whom there is no intercourse and no sympathy; who are as ignorant of each other’s habits, thoughts, and feelings, as if they were dwellers in different zones, or inhabitants of different planets; who are formed by a different breeding, are fed by a different food, are ordered by different manners, and are not governed by the same laws.”

“You speak of — ” said Egremont, hesitatingly. And the young stranger replies, “THE RICH AND THE POOR.”

Sybil, or The Two Nations

Author

Benjamin Disraeli

Country

United Kingdom

Language

English

Genre(s)

Fiction

Publication date

1845

Sybil, or The Two Nations is an 1845 novel by Benjamin Disraeli. Published in the same year as Friedrich Engels‘s The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844, Sybil traces the plight of the working classes of England. As the title suggests, Disraeli is interested in dealing with the horrific conditions in which the majority of England’s working classes lived — or, what is generally called the Condition of England question.

The book is a roman à thèse, or a novel with a thesis — which was meant to create a propagandistic furor over the squalor that was plaguing England‘s working class cities.

Disraeli’s novel was made into a silent film called Sybil in 1921, starring Evelyn Brent and Cowley Wright.

The subtitle, “The Two Nations”, has five main sources:

  1. Plato writes in The Republic that each city contains two cities “warring with each other, one of the poor, the other of the rich.”
  2. 1805: Charles Hall writes, “The people in a civilised state may be divided into different orders; but for the purpose of investigating the manner in which they enjoy or are deprived of the requisites to support the health of their bodies and minds, they need only be divided into two classes, viz., the rich and the poor.”
  3. 1835: Alexis de Tocqueville writes of “two rival nations” (the rich and the poor).
  4. 1841: William Channing writes, “In most large cities there may be said to be two nations, understanding as little of one another, having as little intercourse as if they lived in different lands.”
  5. 1845: Engels writes that the working class and the bourgeoisie are like “two radically dissimilar nations, as unlike as difference of race could make them.”

Disraeli’s interest in this subject stemmed from his involvement in the Chartist movement, which may be called the most successful failure of Victorian England. Thomas Carlyle sums up the movement in his 1839 essay “Chartism”. The essay begins by stating, “A feeling very generally exists that the condition and disposition of the Working Classes is a rather ominous matter at present; that something ought to be said, something ought to be done, in regard to it.” Chartism failed as a parliamentary movement (bills in Parliament were twice stuck down); however, five of the six central tenets of Chartism would become a reality during the 19th century. The only one never to become a reality would be Annual Parliaments.

Chartism demanded:

  1. Universal suffrage for men
  2. Secret Ballot
  3. Removal of property requirements for Parliament
  4. Salaries for Members of Parliament (MPs)
  5. Electoral districts
  6. Annually elected Parliament

Characters

  • Sybil Gerard
  • Charles Egremont
  • Lord Marney
  • Lord Henry Sydney
  • Lord de Mowbray
  • Rigby
  • Taper
  • Tadpole
  • Lady St. Julians
  • Marchioness of Deloraine
  • Baptist Hatton
  • Aubrey St. Lys
  • Sidonia
  • Devilsdust
  • Dandy Mick
  • Walter Gerard (Sybil’s father)
  • Stephen Morley
  • Mr. Mountchesney

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